An auto ignition coil is a transformer capable of delivering high voltage pulses.
The purpose of these pulses is to create a spark (arc) between the electrodes of the spark plug of an internal combustion engine, of sufficient strength and duration to properly initiate the internal combustion of the air-gasoline mixture.
The working principle of the coil consists of a primary winding that is driven by an electronic switch until the desired current is reached. At the moment of power failure, the secondary output terminal generates a high voltage of 20~30Kv to ensure spark ignition.
The types of coils associated with the development of engines over the years have been more or less complex:
- Oil bath coil: This is the most outdated technology. Facet has decided not to manufacture them due to their high pollution and limited production, and recommends a newer generation of coils as an alternative (see below).
- Electromechanical distribution coils (1st generation): These are single coils, the high voltage is "distributed" using a special cable from a rotating distributor mounted on the distributor to the spark plug, inside the "cap".
- Misfire coil (2nd generation): This type of coil is called a misfire coil because there is a normal ignition spark in the cylinder during the compression phase and a spark of small intensity in the cylinder during the exhaust phase. Ignition systems using these coils are called "static distribution" or "distributors" because they eliminate distributors, caps, and high voltage cables, making the ignition system more reliable. The electronic control system of these coils is more precise and can manage the strength of the primary current by controlling the duration of the pulses so that the current reaches a given value.
Coils of this type also include some multi-plug coils.
- Direct Coils (3rd Generation): These coils are mounted on a fully electronic ignition system.
In these coils, the negative output of the secondary circuit is connected directly to a single spark plug, while the other end is connected to the ground through a low voltage connection, or to the positive terminal of the primary circuit within the coil. So we have a coil for each candle.
Each direct coil consumes half as much power as the lost spark coils: this advantage is important because direct coils mounted on spark plugs operate at higher temperatures. These coils can be of the "pencil" type, with axial windings on the spark plug, forming the typical "pencil" shape, or of the "plug top" type, where the coils are assembled in a single block mounted on the motor head, or Below the direct coil set that is connected to the spark plug by the high voltage cable. Direct coils can be equipped with built-in control electronics.